Research into our subclade - Terminal SNP M319

Being a rare group, we dont get much official research or attention from the scientific community. But, what we do get will be linked here.

This page is new, so check back as new material will be added as existing papers come to light, or as new papers are published.

Note that most science publications refer to our group by the terminal SNP name - in our case M319. This is because as new SNPs are discovered, the haplogroup tree gets updated, resulting in haplogroup names changing, sometimes because of an SNP that is specific to that group, and sometimes as a knock on effect of new SNPs being found in neighbouring haplogroups.

Take this year (2012) as an example: we started the year as J2a4d, then we became J2a3d, and now in October find ourselves called J2a1d. These are the ISOGG nomenclature. If science papers do talk about the haplogroup nomenclature then they usually do so based upon the YCC nomenclature, which is what ISOGG base their tree on, but they are not exactly the same as the YCC update their trees less frequetly.

Be assured that they are all talking about the same thing - terminal SNP M319 which defines our haplogroup. We have it, and the rest of the world dont. Just be aware that when reading these documents, sometimes you will have to look out for SNP M319 or J2a8 (YCC nomenclature) rather than looking out for J2A1D (or the former names, J2a3d, J2a4d, J2a1e, J2a1h, J2l) by ISOGG.

Reconstruction of Patrilineages and Matrilineages of Samaritans and Other Isralei Populations From Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation - Shen et al (2004) This is the original paper from the scientists who discovered our group existed in the first place. Before this paper if you had a Y chromosome test, you would have been told you were J2a because at the time that was the terminal SNP, and M319 was not yet discovered. This paper took us down one more layer of granularity in understanding our DNA and differentiated us from our other J2a cousins.

The three M319 results were found, not in the Samaritans, but in the comparrison group, specifically in the Jewish Iraqi group (1/20 - 5%) and the Jewish Moroccan group (2/20 - 10%).


Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau (31 January 2007)

This paper makes mention of 57 J2-DYS413 chromosome results in Crete, nine of which were M319 positive (designated J2a1h at that time). Seven of these nine Cretan M319-derived chromosomes had the (CA)16-(CA)18 genotype at the DYS413 microsatellite marker. The paper suggests that this supports a Crete origin for this group, but we arent convinced that this is the case.


Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic - King et al (2008)

This study found M319 in 17 out of 193 individuals from Crete - 8.8%


Micro-geographic distribution of Y-chromosomal variation in the central-western European region Brabant (Aug 2010)

The Brabant project is quite interesting. It's backed by the Belgian government and is a large project looking at the region of Brabant, Belgium. A further project is planned for the whole of Flanders. Interestingly, three M319 positive results were discovered. Two from Mechelen (north of Brussels) and one from Flemish Brabant (circling Brussels). The surnames are not published unfortunately, but it looks like the STR results maybe made available at some point. M-319 turning up in Belgium is not a complete surprise as one of the partisipants, Joseph De Rijck has already got in contact with us with his results (Joseph is the one from Flemish Brabant). Whether the other two results from this study are from distant De Rijck relations of Joseph's or not, we do not yet know.


Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.Herrera et al (November 2011)

“Shortly after the arrival of early farmers in Armenia and Anatolia (8 kya), agriculture spread to Greece and the Balkans, before rapidly expanding across Europe. Furthermore, the classification of Armenian as an old Indo-European language with similarities to the ancestral Proto-Indo-European languages has led to the supposition that agriculturalists migrating from Armenia into Europe were responsible for the establishment of Indo-European languages in the continent. However, despite the close linguistic relationship between Armenians and the Indo-European speaking populations of Europe, we see little genetic support for this claim. The derived M412 allele, which is found in nearly all haplogroup R1b1b1*-L23 chromosomes in Europe, is absent in the sampled Armenians, which also exhibit a scarcity of haplotype sharing with Europeans, suggesting a limited role for Armenians in the introduction of R1b into Europe.

Several authors have proposed that the Indo-European language presently spoken by Armenians arose during the Bronze Age, when Indo-European speaking tribes from the Balkans and Greece invaded Anatolia and Transcaucasia, leading to the subsequent spread of their culture and language. In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman, and Byzantine empires.”

This figure is 6 positives out of 103 from Lake Van, Turkey, as shown in one of the diagrams on this blog which talks about the paper:


This map attempts to show these accademic results

View J2a8-M319 academic results in a larger map